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Pneuma Ensemble is a Toronto-based early music group focusing on 11th-14th C. medieval monophony (such as troubadour song and minnesang) using historically informed performance on medieval instruments. The name Pneuma comes from the ancient Greek word πνεῦμα meaning"breath," "spirit," or "soul" with various meanings for philosophical and medical writers in antiquity. A neume (/ˈnjuːm/) is the basic element of musical notation before the invention of five-line staff notation.





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